The Best Gold Nose Ring Choices From India





India is recognized internationally for its outstanding jewelry and ornaments. It is impossible to arrange Indian wedding functions without gold jewelry. India is well known for its distinctive, wonderful and astonishing gold jewelry. It is a big exporter of the exclusive gold jewelry to different countries of the world. Especially the 22k indian gold jewelry is very famous and well known.

Here are some exquisite nose jewelry pieces that  will definitely appeal to many of you.


The amazing thing about the designs of the Indian gold jewelry is that you will find different designs in each culture and state. South India is famous for its temple-based jewelry, while amazing carved designs are the specialty of North India. However, Western part of the country is popular for its mirror and stonework. And if you are looking to find the outclass bead work then you should go to the eastern region of India, there you will find skilled designers for this type of work on jewelry.

Gold Indian jewelry is available in different varieties. Some of the most common forms of this jewelry are maang tikka, nose pin, nose ring, earrings, necklaces, pendants, chokers, armlets, finger rings, bangles, bracelets, waistbands, toe rings and anklets. Trained and accomplished jewelry makers make these pieces by using pure 22k gold. If you want to see the classy artwork then you should check out the Meenakari and Kundan gold jewelry of India. This type of jewelry is exceptional and look magnificent.

The history of gold jewelry in India is very old and it was the tradition of rajas and maharajas of hundreds of years ago to adore these jewelry pieces and this tradition is being transferred from generation to generation.

To see the full selection of Indian Nose Rings and Jewelry Visit us at the link below:

Rings Of Platinum, Rings Of Gold

I like the rings made out of Platinum. The best ornament with respect to my taste. How ever people make like different things which is variable according to their taste. The reasons for my interest towards the type of ring is it is Pure, precious and rare, Platinum is the most noble of all metals. We can purchase the Rings made out of Platinum for following occassions which is more often in our country i. e I like the rings made out of Platinum. The best ornament with respect to my taste.

Gold Nose Ring Girl

How ever people make like different things which is variable according to their taste. The reasons for my interest towards the type of ring is it is Pure, precious and rare, Platinum is the most noble of all metals. We can purchase the Rings made out of Platinum for following occassions which is more often in our country i. e Anniversary Rings, Promise Rings, Men’s Rings, Engagement Rings,Weeding Rings, Fashion Rings etc. Platinum is an extremely rare metal. I like for this main reason. The price of platinum, like other industrial commodities, is more volatile than that of gold.

This platinum wedding band has a polished finish and a rounded inside edge for comfortable wear. similarly the other types of ring were made out in different types. Platinum ring settings are increasingly popular both because of their beauty and their durability. Platinum is a relatively recent discovery especially when compared to gold and silver.

Europeans learned of platinum when the Spanish discovered it in Ecuador in the late sixteenth century but it wasn’t until the late eighteenth century that scientists learned how to work with it. Platinum’s high melting point made it difficult to melt and mold the metal into intricate and beautiful pieces of jewelry. Nothing is comparable in beauty and quality to the lovely brushed patina or the durability and strength of platinum.

Generally Our selection of platinum rings contains the following: solitaire diamond platinum rings, pearl and platinum rings, ruby platinum rings, emerald platinum rings, sapphire platinum rings, aquamarine platinum rings, gemstone platinum rings, filigree and diamond platinum rings, platinum engagement rings, and platinum eternity rings. I also like have platinum and diamond or platinum and gemstone two stone rings and three stone rings.

Jewels, Fashion and Pride

Mostly women are fond of jewels as fashion and pride. There are an ample number of varieties in the jewelry field particularly in Indian jewelry arena. The important mode of fashions jewels of women are; nose rings, jewelry make, imitation jewels, bridal jewels, bracelets, ear rings, fashion jewels, Indian Bangles, Ankelets, armlets, diamond bracelets, diamond studs, traditional bangles and so on.

Gold Nose Ring Smile

There is an endless list of jewelry articles which could be taken and used.

Anklets: usually this type of jewel worn the ankle part of the leg. This gives a natural sense and beauty nature to the while walking. The forms of anklets available are ranges from the studded to non studded materials. This is made of either in Silver or in Gold. There are also imitation products in it. The recent of Anklets is the make of simple without much studs or the ornamental work.

Bangles: these are the jewels worn in the wrist portion which is made of Silver or Gold material. Women mostly prefer Gold or Gold plated materials. The cuff bangles are also available in Indian jewelry market.

Bridal Jewels: these are very expensive in nature as compared to the other jewels. It would be used in a rare occasions like Marriages or engagements. It adds additional fragrance to the jewels. Mostly studded with some precious gems like sapphires, blue are used.

Nose ring: these are the jewels worn in nose; especially studded items would be preferred with some expensive gems like diamond. There are several types of nose rings available to suit the taste of women. Bend type or the straightened are in use.

Diamond bracelets: very expensive and prestigious jewel among the gems. These are made out of toughening Gold into a big ring like structure, the diamond stones would be impregnated in such Gold rings. Some wear these types of bracelets as to their horoscope.

Diamond studs: these are good supplement for a ear ring. This could give a good and simple look. The diamond studs are very cute to wear most of the women like it for pride.

Imitation Jewels: these types of jewels are very much used now a day. Since the price of Gold soaring high, the coverage of Imitation jewels are increasing day by day. It comprises of all types of Gold plated items which would be very fancy and could be own at an affordable price.

Traditional bangles: this gives some heritage look of the country with diamond studded items.

Armlets: these are the jewels worn in every part of the hand.

Head wear jewels: these are the jewels worn on head in some auspicious occasions.

A Royal Wedding In New Delhi

The most memorable Indian wedding which I had attended was in New Delhi. This was the wedding of my friend Kajol. She is a fashion designer by profession and her father was a civil servant. The groom was a software engineer who was working in the USA.
The most fascinating part of this wedding was that the ceremonies lasted for three full days and I bet for all those who attended this wedding it’s going to be a memorable event for their lifetime.

The first day of the ceremony was like an engagement sort of thing, members of both families sort of renewed their promise that they will be available from the wedding day after tomorrow. All the members of the groom’s party were given elaborate gifts like dresses, dry fruits, sweets and cash. Then there was a tea and snacks for everybody and this function was held in a five star hotel.

The next day was mehndi ceremony which was organized at the bride’s residence. This ceremony is meant for bridal makeup. All the friend and relatives of the bride help her in preparation for the next days wedding. This includes applying turmeric paste, mehendi, etc. and other aspects of bridal make-up. All this accompanied by music, dance and lots of fun.

On the final day the actual wedding took place. The groom and party came with a huge procession accompanied by a 10 member music band, DJ sound system and lot of firecrackers bursting. Then there was a lavish dinner for 2000 people. There were 75 varieties of snacks, dishes and sweet times to choose from. The food served was of North Indian, Chinese and Continental style dishes. There was also a live band and orchestra performance along with dinner. The place was decorated like Royal palace and even the waiters were dressed like royal staff.

Hindu Wedding Ceremonies And A Gold Nose Ring

Hindu weddings are very bright events, filled with ritual and celebration, that continue for several days. They are not small affairs, often with 400-1000 people attending (many of whom are unknown to the bride and groom). Though most marriages are arranged, some couples in urban areas have love marriages.lengha down the isle

The true Indian wedding is about two families getting wedded socially with much less emphasis on the individuals involved. Many of the wedding customs are common among the Hindus, Jains, Sikhs and even Muslims. They are a combination of local, religions and family traditions. dress was the bride wearing silk sarees
Thali is an Indian meal with contents varying from one regional cuisine to another. A thali is a selection of different dishes, usually served in small bowls on a round tray. The round tray is generally made with steel with multiple compartments. In North America people sometimes use plastic thalis because they are disposable.
Typical dishes include rice, dhal, vegetables, chapati, papad, curd (yoghurt), small amounts of chutney or pickle, and a sweet dish to top it. Important marriage ceremonies Some of the rituals were in vogue considering the young age of the bride and groom in the early days. But these have been followed even now also. Examples are Nalangu, bride and groom being carried after the Kaasi yathirai,Oonjal and the bride sitting on the father’s lap. Vrutham The wedding rites/rituals/celebrations start off with prayers offered to ancestors to seek their and God’s blessings for the upcoming wedding. This usually takes place in the early morning hours of the first wedding day.

The bride’s side does the rites for the bride’s side of the family while the groom side does conducts its own prayers side-by-side. Janavasam/”maapillai azhaippu” – the procession This is the archetypical picture of Indian celebration packed with a kaleidoscope of color, glitz, music and dancing! The groom would be seated on a horse-drawn chariot (or in some cases, beautifully adorned cars) as he makes a procession through the roads with his entourage. The accompanying entourage dances to the rhythm rendered by the accompanying band announcing to all the upcoming matrimony .

In recent times the bride gets a piece of action as she joins the groom halfway through the procession and gets to sit alongside the groom on the chariot. They then make their way to the temple where the groom – “maapillai” – is given a new set of traditional dhoti – “veshi” and shirt – to wear for the following nischayathartham ceremony. Of late some grooms go for Western styled suits also. The reason for this ritual is from the practice of announcing in early days to all the village people on who is the bride and groom. The procession then makes its way back to the mandapam (wedding hall) where the nischayathartham then ensues Nischayathartham – the engagement ceremony

After all the joyous dancing and pompous procession, the guests settle down at the mandapam to witness and bless the rites and rituals involved in the “engagement ceremony” with the background of Sanskrit mantrams chanted by the Hindu priests.

During the Nichayathartham the following details of both bride and the groom are read out for the everyone Personal: Father’s name, Grand father’s name, the village to which their forefather’s belonged, their gothra,aliasname etc. Muhurtham: Date & Time (Georgian and Lunar), Lagnam, Star, Address of the marriage hall etc. The bride and groom are officially engaged in God’s name and the auspicious timing for the Muhurtham – the actual wedding rites – is set in everybody’s presence.

Everyone present in the Nichayathaartham is asked if anyone has any concern or objection and only after everyone is okay the “Thaamboolam” plates are exchanged. “Thaamboolam” plates containing items required for the muhurtham are exchanged by both the groom’s and bride’s sides (generally the senior most male) during this function.

Gold Nose Ring Smile

Muhurtham – the WEDDING proper Muhurtham refers to the actual wedding ceremony itself. It typically occurs on the second day of a 2- or 3-day wedding ceremony and occurs generally early in the morning around 7-8 am depending on the priests’ decree but may be even up to 11 AM. The muhurtham includes the “Kasi yaatrai” , “maalai maatral”, “oonjal ceremony” and the actual Muhurtham itself.

Kasi yaatrai refers to an age-old Brahmin ritual where the groom “decides” to take up ‘sanyaasam’ (i.e. asceticism, monkhood) for spiritual pursuit. He would ultimately be ‘convinced’ by the bride’s father to return and take up “grahastham” or family life and that the bride will assist in his subsequent spiritual pursuit. For the Kaasi Yaathirai, the bride’s father would have to buy(as in general practice)an Umbrella, Hand fan, Bhagwad Gita book, Sandals. The maapillai (groom) will then agree and garlands will be exchanged by the bride and groom (maalai maatral).

The process of maalai maatral may be complicated by the groom’s side carrying the groom and the bride’s side cayring the bride and each side making it difficult for the other side to correctly place the garland. Basically traditional family entertainment. They would then head to a swing (oonjal) in the mandapam. Respected womenfolk of the household will then perform short rituals with classical singing to ward off “evil eyes” as the bride and groom are seated on the oonjal. They then proceed to the podium in the mandapam where rites of the marriage – muhurtham – are performed.

The climax is when the bride is seated on her dad’s lap as her dad does (kannigadhaanam) and offers his daughter to be taken care of by the groom. As the priest then chants mantrams, the groom ties a “thaali” or “thirumaangalyam” as a necklace around the bride’s neck as all the guests shower their blessings (symbolized by rice grains that are distribued to all guests to shower onto the bride and groom). This symbolizes the actual wedding and the newly-weds take their marriage vows in 7 steps (sapthapathi) as they walk 3 rounds hand-in-hand around the holy fire (agni).

Nalangu – wedding games Nalangu is a tradition that dates back to times when marriages used to occur at a younger age (early teens). This component was incorporated to keep the mood light-hearted and fun for the newly wed young teens. It has stayed on as an integral component of South Indian weddings. Traditional games include the newly-weds putting their hands into a small bowl to find a small object with the person finding the object first the winner. Other examples of games include breaking papadums over each other’s heads and so on and so forth. It is an interesting component of the wedding gala. Wedding Reception Photos may be taken with the newly weds with the backdrop of classical music.

Typically South Indian / Carnatic musicians are called upon to provide the music entertainment as the reception goes on. Kattu Saatham This is on the day next to the Muhurtham. In early days the groom’s family would have to travel for a longtime to reach their place and so for their travel needs food would be packed and given.This is how the ritual came in to practice.

The Bahrain Is Better In All Things Jewels

Jewelry is an item of personal adornment, such as a necklace, ring, brooch or bracelet,anklets, bangles etc. All the girls definitely like jewelry. They all are crazy about Fashion jewelry. I too also like all kinds of jewelry.

I like rings, steads, chains, long chains, Bangles, anklets, etc depends upon the making and style. I love to wear small small jewelry. It looks very elegant, pretty and nice. If i am going to purchase a jewelry, first i have to watch the design, weight and purity (if it is either gold or silver or platinum). My ring or stead must be elegant, small in size, ultra modern, sleek and it must be light weighted. It should be fashionable, and attractive. Fashion jewelry improves our look. Now a days many girls prefer platinum and silver ornaments. Because of the elegant look and pattern.

Gold ankle bracelets are gradually finding an increasing number of takers among women these days. Irrespective of their age, most fashion conscious women across the world are going in for gold ankle bracelets in large number nowadays. Jewelry designers these days are in a way responsible for their rising popularity. They are coming out with newer designs almost each passing day.
The numerous designs can be found at many leading online jewelry stores too. A simple online search can help you choose from the wide variety on offer. Like gold and silver ornaments, many stores sell a imitation jewelry too. These all are looks like original gold and silver jewelry. College and working girls like to wear this kind of jewelry. Not only these people, many middle class women also buy these imitation jewelry, because of pattern, choice of jewelry and money saving. I too also purchase these imitation jewelry through online stores. I have diamond ring and stead which is favorable for me. Many people like pearl and ruby ornaments too. I have a pearl set including ring, stead, necklace and bangles. It was very nice among my other jewelry. Earrings frame the face, accent your outfit, and are always in fashion.

Here you will find a bevy of the subtle, bold, and beautiful to adorn your lovely ear. Original, handcrafted designs created to touch a woman´s heart. One of a kind and limited edition jewelry made with the utmost care of precious metals, gemstones and pearls. I am interested in birth stone also. so i bought 1 garnet and ruby stone for me and make a ring. It was nice and i always wear it in my fingers. Jewelry making is an art. Making beaded jewelry is the least expensive hobbies. I try and wear it many times. Sentimentally Garnet is good for me. So i like this stone. So i always prefer garnet.

10 Masterpieces Of The Mulah

Anything made of brass Brass was not available when I was a youngster, so I grew up thinking of it as something exotic and unusual. I love it both polished and with a patina. It compliments my skin tone in a way that no other metal does.

2.Anything made of bronze Bronze is a wonderful color accent to the skin tone of the hands and face. Plus it makes me think of The Bronze Age and the sword and sorcery stories I used to read as a kid. Wearing bronze and brass jewelry makes me feel like an exotic beauty who just stepped out of an old pulp adventure novel.

3.Anklets I’m a modest dresser with a very covered up clothing style. All that’s out most of the time is hands, head, and feet. A loose or draped garment needs an ankle bracelet and a pair of sandals. As a sexy look, it beats any skimpy swimsuit hands down!

red_dress_24. Toe rings Another must-have piece for the draped outfit. For a toe ring I like a stone that compliments rather than matches the tone of my outfit. If I’m wearing blue, for instance, I like to go with a bright blue stone. Bangle bracelets I hate to keep using the word “exotic” but I don’t know what other term applies to those of us who don’t look like Suzy Creamcheese. I like to keep a collection of the small bangle bracelets. Wear a few for everyday or an armful when I want to look like “wow!”

5. Big cuff bracelets These make me feel like a superhero! I’m particularly fond of chunky cuff bracelets that have a stamped or hammered pattern.

6. Choker neck pieces They say these only look good on people with long necks, but I think they work with a round face and head, too.

7. Big stones The aesthetics of jewelry always come first for me. Don’t get me wrong — I like gold, sterling and precious stones as much as the next woman — but there’s a way of feeling opulent that has nothing to do with cost. I like big pieces of glass in blue, orange and red tones. I love a pin or necklace that puts together unusual color combinations. There are so many kinds of beautiful mineral materials in the world, why stick to just a few?

8. Dangling earrings Love the look of dangling earrings, especially if they have a geometric or asymmetrical shape.

9. Artisan pieces Again, a pin or bracelet doesn’t have to be pricey to be art. The worth is in the hand of the artist, no the price tag. Some of my favorite items are things made from everyday objects or materials.

10.Nose rings It has been a while since I wore these, now that I’m wrinkled, but I love the look of them, particularly the diamond solitaire or a trio design (like the pawnbroker sign). Facial piercings have become a popular fad item with any and everybody, but for some reason the simple nose ring, which actually enhances the female face, has not caught one.

The Beauty Beyond The Nile

Indians are very fond of jewels in common. Both men and women want wear lot of jewels to bring attraction of others. In fact, Indians consider the jewels as the prestigious status for them in the society. The jewels are made of gold, silver and platinum. In past days, the jewels are made of gold and silver.

Nowadays, the platinum ornaments are introduced in this decade. The gold and silver has some chemical substances which will done good to the human health. The gold receives sun rays and it is sent to the human body which will make our body cool. The silver makes us to long live in this world. The silver is used to make plate, tumblers and even some vessels.

Eating or using silver vessels in our day to day lives, will prevent harmful diseases and made us to live longer. Apart, from vessels or ornaments, there are symbol of social status. People think that there will be a social status only if they wear gold or platinum ornaments. Platinum metal is very costly than gold. The pure gold cannot be used to make ornaments. The pure gold is mixed with copper to some respected ratio and ornaments are made, so that the ornaments can withstand and give long life without less damage. As gold rates are rising high, some people buy gold for the investment purpose. The gold coins are good for investment when compared to gold jewels. Further stones are embedded in the ornaments to give further attraction.
Stones are very much related to the zodiac signs. Each stone has one power. The people can wear ornaments embedded with stones as ear ring, toe ring, bangle, etc. according to the zodiac sign. Indians are subjected very much to the sentiments and they will have faith on zodiac signs. They think this zodiac will lead their life. Diamond is mostly used by rich people. As diamonds are costly in nature, middle and poor economy level people do not buy it even they have anxiety to do so. It may be symbol of rich in the social status. Many diamond showrooms are opened and we have to recognize the good diamond from bad ones. There are many myths about diamonds in the modern society. Some says diamond is good for one part of people and it may do bad things for other people.

But this is only a myth. There is no proof regarding this thought. Most people buy gold in the form of bars. They will add copper that and make ornaments. Nowadays, the price of the gold is reaching sky. So people show some aggressiveness towards gold. The people who make ornaments out of gold have left with no job, and they are switching over to some other business by leaving their business which was followed through heredity. Women are very fond of jewels when compared to men. They are not even attending any ceremonies without gold ornaments. Gold has influenced Indians in their day to day life.

Kundan Style For Love And Care

Jewelry is an adornment for women and they wear it to enhance their looks and make them more attractive. There are various designs that women prefer to wear and vary from the simplest to the heavy designs, from the traditional to the modern designs. The Indian women prefer wearing heavy jewelry and they are adorned from head to toe with jewelry especially when they groom for weddings and any cultural celebrations.

Indian BeautyThere are a variety of Indian designs available in the market that when you go shopping you would be baffled with the huge collections. I have a lot of favorites in the Indian designs even though I prefer to wear simple designs casually, whenever I go for a wedding function or a celebration I prefer wearing heavy Indian jewelry designs.

The first jewelry I prefer wearing are necklaces and I love wearing heavy necklaces and when ever I go for shopping for necklace I prefer kundan works as they are more traditional and refine. It goes well with saree and is really very attractive and elegant I have two sets of kundan jewelry and wear them most of the time I dress up myself to go for a function.

The second jewelry I choose to wear after necklace is earrings. I love to wear a variety of earrings and the favorite design that I like to wear on my ears are ring designs. Ring earrings suites almost every one and there are many designs and styles available in ring earrings. After earrings I choose my bangles and I love wearing broad bangles with kundan work and Mahabharata designs. I usually wear one broad bangle on each hand to adorn my hands. An anklet adds beauty to your feet and is a great piece of ornament. While you are going for a function you would like to get adorned with ornaments from head to toe. Anklets are worn by a lot of Indian women and I love to wear anklets with a little bit of chiming while walking.

I like wearing toe rings and I prefer wearing round plain toe rings and spiral toe rings. While wearing chapels and high heeled chapels toe ring would look great on the exposed toes. I love wearing rings on my fingers and I prefer wearing Joda Akbar style ornaments and prefer such designs on my fingers. Armlets go well with saree and blouse and they add elegance to the dress you are wearing, an armlet with stones on them is a great ornament to make you look more elegant and traditional. You have also got waist belts to adorn your wastes available in various Indian designs.

Overlapping designs are my favorites for waist chains and they hang in a number of semi circles on one side of your waste. Nose rings are very popular in South India and women wear them to add more glamour to their face. A round plain ring goes well for any type of face and is my preferred one. Stone jewelry is the favorites of all time and is preferred by many women. The traditional designs combined with precious stones are really amazing and I really love them especially because it is very elegant and your can carry yourself with pride wearing one.

Diamonds, ruby and emerald are precious stones and are very elegant and classy when worn. In precious stones I love the navaratna models containing the nine precious stones in necklaces and bangles. This design is my favorite among the Indian designs and I prefer wearing them most of the time. There are huge collections available in Indian designs depicting the culture and tradition of each region. Even the year old designs haven’t lost its glory and are continuing through generations even now.

Unique Styles That Continue Tradition

Styles of jewelry in India are as diverse as its regions, cultures and people. Making jewelry is considered to be an exclusive art from and has passed down from generations of karigars and artisans. Different types of arts used in today’s fashion jewelry in India include.
Namaste with a smileTemple jewelry: These pieces of jewelry are purely traditional and are usually worn by people who want to represent their culture through events like folk dance. The designs and motifs of this kind of jewelry are inspired by elements of nature.

Antique jewelry: This type of jewelry is usually found in gold and silver and is oxidized to give them a dull look.

Meenakari jewelry: This jewelry is made up of kundan and is embedded in silver or gold. Precious beads and stones are also used in these jewelry pieces and are extremely popular in Rajasthan and other parts of Northern India.

South Indian Jewelry: Because people have suddenly become aware of the spiritual value of rudraksha, these beads are extensively used in South Indian pieces of jewelry and have become very popular among women throughout India in the form of necklaces, bracelets and earrings. Because rudraksha beads have a spiritual value attached to them, they are usually not worn in legs as anklets.

Costume jewelry: Costume jewelry has its own place in an Indian woman’s heart and it is usually crafted on materials like jute, ceramics and coconut wood. They have intrinsic looks and designs and are marvels of craftsmanship. Any fashionable woman is just mad for it. For Indian women, jewelry is not just a matter of their wealth but refers to much more than that. Women aim at gaining a presentable look at school, work or at any social event or function and we should be thankful to the Internet to provide such a wide variety of choices and information regarding today’s fashion jewelry. Shopping for fashion jewelry through Internet not only saves your time but also your money to a great extent.

Indian bridal jewelry: Indian weddings are undoubtedly a way to show off your class and status in the society. Apart from loud music, dances, colors, food and dresses, jewelry also plays an important role in accomplishing an Indian wedding. In India, a wedding is considered to be a bond of highly sacred value and it is the most important day of a woman’s life. Indian brides are decked up with beautiful jewelry from head to toe, complementing with their personality and attire.

Some of the most important pieces of jewelry that are a must on an Indian bride are maangtika, earrings, nose ring or nath, necklace, armbands, bangles, finger rings, anklets and ring bracelets. Kundan jewelry pieces are made from Rajasthan and produce an abundance of colors. Polkis or meenakaris are by-products of Mughals and Rajputs and are finding their place in modern show rooms now-a-days. Pearl jewelry pieces are luxurious, versatile and immaculate and are simply irresistible. Most Indian pearl jewelry is designed in white pearls in combination with beads, crystals and semi-precious stones.

Mughal jewelry was introduced into the country by Mughals and is never out of fashion. This kind of jewelry is ornate with focus upon elaborate designs that are highly inspired by elements of nature. Some of the common motifs of Mughal jewelry are flowers, vines, leaves, birds and mangoes. Navrattan jewelry is a traditional Bengali style of jewelry which comprises of 9 precious gem stones including ruby, pearl, diamond, opal, emerald, turquoise, coral, sapphire and cat’s eye.